Sunday, July 31, 2011

Names of Jewish Gassing Victims (1)

Names of Jewish Gassing Victims (2)


While my Challenge to Supporters of the Revisionist Transit Camp Theory has found no takers or "Revisionist" arbiters so far (I’ve heard nothing from Bradley Smith, and Eric Hunt declined after having initially manifested interest in being an arbiter, on grounds that he might become an applicant for the reward), Greg Gerdes’ challenge called $1,000.00 REWARD FOR THE NAME OF JUST ONE GASSED JEW has brought quite a few names already, see my posts of Thu Jun 30, 2011 5:57 am, Wed Jul 06, 2011 1:56 pm, Wed Jul 06, 2011 1:58 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:32 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:33 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:34 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:34 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:35 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:36 pm, Fri Jul 15, 2011 12:37 pm, Fri Jul 22, 2011 12:12 pm, Fri Jul 22, 2011 12:15 pm, Fri Jul 22, 2011 12:17 pm, Wed Jul 27, 2011 4:52 pm and Fri Jul 29, 2011 10:03 am of Gerdes’ thread on the discussion forum of Friedrich Paul Berg and Eric Hunt’s website called "The Revisionist Workshop".



So far nine submissions of proof regarding a specific individual person have been posted, and the arbiter appointed by Gerdes, Mr. James Randi, has been notified of each post through the e-mail address of the James Randi Educational Foundation’s secretariat. Mr. Randi, who of course wasn’t informed by Gerdes about having been appointed as an arbiter, has so far said nothing about my submissions, which Gerdes is of course eager to interpret in the sense that Randi "refuses" to endorse my submissions because the proof submitted does not convince him beyond a reasonable doubt of what is to be proven, i.e. that the respective person was killed by poison gas in a Nazi gas chamber or gas van during World War II. Needless to say, the likely reason for Mr. Randi’s silence is that either the notifications of my submissions haven’t been forwarded to him (I figure that someone of Mr. Randi’s fame gets hundreds of e-mails every day and thus has a staff that filters them, otherwise he would be doing nothing other than reading e-mails) or that Mr. Randi doesn’t want to have anything to do with someone as lowly and obnoxious as Greg Gerdes, which would be altogether understandable (even I as a common private citizen sometimes wonder why I bother with the fellow, which I can explain only by his coming in handy as a useful idiot for the purpose of exposing "Revisionism").

Anyway, I’m not doing this exercise because I expect to earn any reward money from Greg Gerdes (who would by now owe me $ 9,000 is Mr. Randi had endorsed by submissions), but because I consider establishing and documenting individual victims of Nazi mass murder an interesting and rewarding research topic, especially after reading Dr. Lang’s article Skelette für Straßburg, published in the German weekly Die Zeit, which I translated for my most recent submission. I encourage my fellow bloggers and our readers to participate in this undertaking. This blog was given the number "(1)" because it is meant to be the first of a series.

I shall hereafter quote the proof submissions so far posted on the TRW forum, converted into blog format and without the Gerdian "Opening Statement" and "Closing Statement" rubbish.

1. Guta Strawczynski, daughter of survivor witness Oskar Strawczynski, gassed at Treblinka extermination camp on 5 October 1942

The proof submitted is the same as in the blog "Can you give the name of just one Jew, with proof, who was gassed?".

2. Nathan Nathans, uncle of survivor witness Saartje Engel-Wijnberg, gassed at Sobibór extermination camp on 9 April 1943

1. Sobibór was an extermination camp where deportees were mostly killed by gassing, as is proven by the evidence mentioned in my Skeptics Society forum thread Proof that "alleged Sobibór grave # 3/41" contains the rem. and the HC blogs labeled Sobibór.

2. Nathan Nathans, born 24.02.1898, was taken to Sobibór on a transport that left Westerbork in the Netherlands on 6 April 1943 and arrived at Sobibór on 9 April 1943. Like almost all other deportees in that transport, he was gassed at Sobibór on the same day. This is proven by the following evidence:

2.1 The transportation list for the transport departing from Westerbork on 6 April 1943 and arriving at Sobibór on 9 April 1943, which can be viewed in Schelvis file 56, pp. 72 to 129. Nathan Nathans, born 24.02.1898, is mentioned on page 27 of the list, page 98 of the file.

2.2 The testimony provided by the victim's niece, Saartje Engel-Wijnberg, in Zwolle on 14 August 1945. The relevant parts of this testimony can be viewed in Schelvis file 14, page 113. What follows is my translation of the witness's statement identifying her uncle Nathan Nathans as one of the persons gassed immediately after arrival at Sobibór:

In the camp I had to sort the rucksacks and clothes of the gassed people. I know for sure, that our entire transport, except for the 28 selected girls and the above mentioned number of men – was gassed immediately after arrival at Sobibór.
Among the gassed persons were the following:
MIRJAM DE VRIES, about 21 years old, from Haarlem
A 2 ½-year-old boy by the name of BROMET from Amsterdam, who could sing very well.
Mr. and Mrs. PEEREBOOM-PILLER, from Amsterdam,
BETSY HERSCHEL, about 22 years old, from Amsterdam,
Mrs. CATS from Haarlem, the mother of the above-mentioned Mini Catz,
NATHAN NATHANS, from Groningen, an uncle of mine, together with 5 children aged ½ a year to 14 years.
The other persons that belonged to this transport can be established on hand of the documents in Westerbork.


Saartje Engel-Wijnberg also testified at the Sobibór trial in Hagen, German Federal Republic, that ended in 1966. Excerpts from this trial's judgment are translated in my RODOH posts 12342 and 12344. She was considered a credible witness. In a memorandum of the Dortmund Public Prosecutor's Office, categorizing survivor witnesses presented by the prosecution at the Hagen Sobibór trial (see Schelvis file 13, pp. 4 and 5), the witnesses were divided into the following categories: credible witnesses (glaubwürdige Zeugen), conditionally credible witnesses (bedingt glaubwürdige Zeugen) and witnesses whose testimonies could not be used (Zeugen, deren Aussagen nicht verwertbar sind). Saartje Engel was listed among the credible witnesses.

For these reasons there is no room for reasonable doubt that Saartje Engel-Wijnberg spoke the truth in her above-quoted testimony. It is thus proven that Nathan Nathans was in fact gassed at Sobibór on 9 April 1943.


RODOH poster "bluespaceoddity" kindly called my attention to the fact that I had misread the age of the victim named Bromet as being 2 ½ years in the record of Saartje Engel-Wijnberg’s testimony in Zwolle on 14 August 1945. Actually the record reads "ein 24-jähriger Junge" ("a 24—year-old boy"). Simon Bromet, born on 15.3.1918, is mentioned on page 47 in the list of the transport departing from Westerbork on 6 April 1943 and arriving at Sobibór on 9 April 1943 (Schelvis file 56, page 118). There is a Dutch webpage dedicated to Simon Gerard Bromet, son of Machiel Bromet and Anna Peper, who was a singer by profession. Thanks to "bluespaceoddity" for this information.

3. Ilse Bock, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Bernburg on 9 June 1942

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.


The German Federal Archives database features the names of 422 German citizens who died at Bernburg. This is the first of 9 pages of the database query:

Abraham, Max (* 02.02.1897 in Kurnik (poln. Kornik))
Adelhütte, Emilie (* 18.06.1896 in Recklinghausen)
Adler, Hugo (* 04.12.1886 in Bremke)
Aklerman, Szymon Simon (* 24.11.1879 in Lublin)
Alexander, Harry Eberhard (* 02.08.1903 in Halle a. d. Saale)
Alpari, Elisabeth (* 22.09.1889)
Anhang, Leo Leib (* 16.10.1902 in Lukowica)
Anspacher, Dora (* 24.12.1905 in Achim)
Arm, Pinkus (* 09.03.1893 in Rzeszow)
Arnholz, Hugo (* 20.05.1881 in Arnswalde)
Aschheim, Simon (* 03.06.1896 in Berlin)
Bär, Fritz Friedrich Nathan (* 25.02.1889 in Untergrombach)
Bartfeld, David Dawid (* 16.03.1896 in Delatyn)
Behrendt, Henriette Hettie (* 29.08.1892 in Berlin)
Benario-Prestes, Olga (* 12.02.1908 in München)
Bendix, Therese (* 06.04.1872 in Schönebeck)
Benjamin, Herbert (* 26.04.1922 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Berendsohn, Hertha Herta (* 25.05.1903 in Magdeburg)
Berkenruth, Herbert (* 30.04.1916 in Berlin)
Bernhard, Marie (* 29.03.1923)
Bertram, Lina (* 14.02.1906 in Barmen-Elberfeld (Wuppertal))
Bigmann, Else Therese (* 09.08.1898 in Hamm)
Billard, Aron (* 19.12.1894 in Warszawa)
Bittmann, Hermann Hersch (* 25.06.1887 in Kolomea (poln. Kolomyja))
Blau, Max (* 02.01.1893 in Flatow)
Bloch, Alice (* 02.08.1917 in Hamburg)
Bloch, Rosa (* 16.09.1877 in Jastrow)
Bloßfeld, Käte Käthe (* 27.03.1890 in Jeßnitz)
Bluhm, Paul (* 23.02.1890 in Cammin)
Bock, Ilse (* 18.07.1915 in Berlin)
Borchert, Eva (* 23.08.1882)
Brachfeld, Abraham Adolf (* 14.03.1900 in Rzeszow)
Breslauer, Josef (* 11.02.1900 in Jedrzejow)
Breslauer, Leiser Leisar (* 17.01.1892 in Czyzow)
Brönner, Zerline (* 20.08.1902 in Karlsruhe)
Brügel, Hildegard (* 20.09.1909 in Pirna)
Bunzendahl, Frieda (* 11.04.1894 in Gelsenkirchen)
Chajetowitsch, Alice (* 14.10.1896 in Berlin)
Chrost, Moses (* 07.02.1900)
Cohen, Hertha (* 13.09.1901 in Essen)
Cohen, Hugo (* 28.04.1893 in Kalkar)
Cohn, Alfred (* 15.04.1889 in Landsberg (Warthe))
Cohn, Aron (* 11.07.1890 in Heilsberg)
Cohn, Charlotte (* 27.12.1910 in Rawitsch (poln. Rawicz))
Cohn, Eva (* 23.03.1917 in Lessen)
Cohn, Julius (* 01.07.1902 in Bromberg (poln. Bydgoszcz))
Cohn, Martha (* 08.10.1883 in Löbau (poln. Lubawa))
Cohn, Otto (* 17.01.1886 in Berlin)
Cohn, Regina (* 09.01.1912 in Berlin)
Conitzer, Else (* 20.05.1884 in Oschersleben)


The death dates for the names I looked up are 1942 dates, and it is mentioned that the respective person was transferred to Bernburg from a concentration camp. For instance Hugo Adler was transferred from Buchenwald concentration camp to Bernburg, where he died on 2 March 1942. Ilse Bock was transferred from Ravensbrück concentration camp and died at Bernburg on 9 June 1942. Simon Aschheim, who died at Bernburg on 23 March 1942, had also been transferred there from Ravensbrück. This means that the victims were killed in the course of Aktion 14f13.

2. Ilse Bock is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaining to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Born on 18. July 1915 in Berlin
Domiciled in Berlin
Imprisoned at Ravensbrück concentration camp from 12 May 1939 to 1942
Deported in 1942 from Ravensbrück concentration camp to Bernburg a. d. Saale, killing institution
Date and place of death: 09. Juni 1942, Bernburg a. d. Saale, killing institution

3. Given that Ilse Bock is listed in the memorial book as having been transported to Bernburg from Ravensbrück concentration camp and having died at Bernburg on 9 June 1942, and that she died there at a time when concentration camp inmates were being gassed at Bernburg within the scope of Aktion 14f13, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Ilse Bock was one of the persons gassed at Bernburg within the scope of Aktion 14f13. It is thus proven that Ilse Bock was killed by poison gas at Bernburg.


4. Felix Berghoff, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Brandenburg on 23 September 1940

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.



The German Federal Archives database features the names of 312 German citizens who died at Brandenburg. This is the first of 9 pages of the database query:

Abrahamson, Albert (* 11.03.1896 in Lengerich)
Adler, Heinrich (* 31.07.1914 in Berlin)
Ahrndt, Dorothea (* 30.08.1916 in Köln)
Alexander, Iwan (* 15.12.1894 in Meppen)
Altgenug, Waldemar (* 14.10.1909 in Norden)
Apfel, Ludwig (* 16.02.1904 in Bebra)
Auheim, Siegmund (* 00.00.1896)
Aumann, Sigmund Siegfried Sigismund (* 26.11.1895 in Eisenbach)
Bachmann, Selma (* 17.05.1887 in Höxter)
Bähr, Charlotte (* 03.06.1903 in Göttingen)
Bär, Siegfried (* 14.05.1925 in Niederaula)
Bartenstein, Robert (* 28.09.1902 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Baruch, Fanny (* 20.05.1871 in Landau)
Beckmann, Leon (* 05.01.1873 in Krakow (dt. Krakau))
Beer, Ernestine (* 02.02.1876 in Magdeburg)
Belzinger, Lea Erna (* 13.06.1894 in Hamburg)
Benedix, Bernhard (* 29.04.1884 in Hamburg)
Berges, Betty (* 27.04.1890 in Lübeck)
Berghoff, Felix (* 10.06.1894 in Hamburg (Altona))
Beyth, Reinhard (* 11.02.1923 in Berlin)
Blach, Berta (* 27.11.1878 in Abterode)
Bloch, Hans (* 29.11.1895 in Saarbrücken)
Bloch, Ida (* 19.03.1886 in Sulingen)
Bloch, Martha Marta (* 12.11.1897 in Sachsenhausen)
Bloch, Siegfried (* 31.01.1874 in Barnstorf)
Blumenberg, Alfred (* 05.02.1914 in Driburg (Westfalen), Bad)
Blumenfeld, Martha (* 20.04.1877 in Hamburg)
Blumenthal, Schemajo (* 26.03.1871 in Lübeck)
Boas, Leo Rudolf (* 11.10.1875 in Hamburg)
Börsner, Fritz (* 08.06.1886 in Lodz)
Bondi, Sara (* 13.01.1879 in Mainz)
Borchardt, Eva (* 18.02.1905 in Hamburg)
Bragenheim, Martin (* 19.02.1882 in Güstrow)
Breslau, Ignatz Ignaz (* 03.04.1870 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Buchthal, Hedwig (* 21.07.1874 in Hamburg)
Bukofzer, Alice (* 02.08.1920 in Berlin)
Busack, Erich (* 21.09.1898 in Bergkirchen)
Buschhoff, Adele (* 14.04.1885 in Xanten)
Cahn, Julie (* 16.04.1904 in Hamburg)
Cahn, Naphtali Naptalin (* 24.09.1881 in Fulda)
Cloossen, Lieba Linda (* 14.04.1894 in Grodno)
Cohen, Leo (* 01.01.1907 in Bocholt)
Cohen, Stella Amalia (* 07.10.1893 in Hamburg)
Cohn, Felix (* 09.03.1864 in Freienwalde)
Cohn, Heinz (* 23.12.1927 in Berlin)
Cohn, Herta (* 18.05.1896 in Krone a. d. Brahe (poln. Koronowo))
Cohn, Johanna (* 22.07.1877 in Wünnenberg)
Cramer, Carl (* 08.06.1872 in Neuenkirchen)
Daicz, Julius Hermann (* 18.06.1923 in Lübeck)
Daicz, Max Isaak Iwan (* 30.05.1921 in Lübeck)


Three entries from that page:
Iwan Alexander, died at Brandenburg on 27 September 1940.
Betty Berges, died at Brandenburg on 23 September 1940.
Felix Berghoff, died at Brandenburg on the same day.

2. Felix Berghoff is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaing to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Born on 10 June 1894 in Hamburg (Altona) / - / Hansestadt Hamburg
Domiciled in Kiel and Hamburg
Deported from Hamburg to Brandenburg a. d. Havel, killing institution
Date and place of death:
23. September 1940, Brandenburg a. d. Havel, killing institution
Euthanasia

3. Given that Felix Berghoff is listed in the memorial book as having died at Brandenburg at a time when hospitalized mental patiens were transported to Brandenburg and killed there by gassing within the scope of Aktion T4, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Felix Berghoff was one of the persons gassed at Brandenburg within the scope of Aktion T4. It is thus proven that Felix Berghoff was killed by poison gas at Brandenburg.


5. Martha Goge, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Grafeneck on 13 November 1940

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.


The German Federal Archives database features the names of the following 55 German citizens who died at Grafeneck:

Alexander, Ludwig (* 01.09.1895 in Liegnitz)
Bechhöfer, Erna (* 08.08.1901 in Göppingen)
Bernheimer, Rudolf (* 31.07.1879 in Buttenhausen)
Bloch, Adelheid (* 12.04.1908 in Konstanz)
Borowsky, Johanna (* 05.09.1867 in Tarnow)
Breisacher, Korina (* 19.09.1885)
Daube, David (* 27.09.1871 in Hoffenheim)
Eggener, Fritz (* 04.01.1907 in Niederzissen)
Einstein, Hermann (* 12.04.1878 in Buchau)
Einstein, Robert Leopold (* 21.10.1902 in Göppingen)
Erlanger, Liselotte (* 12.05.1915 in Stockach)
Falk, Julius (* 23.03.1882 in Braunsbach)
Fleischer, Ferdinand (* 02.02.1907 in Stuttgart)
Goge, Martha (* 26.01.1895 in Lübeck)
Goge, Martha (* 12.06.1904)
Günzburg, Alfred (* 15.04.1894 in Hamburg)
Günzburger, Alfred (* 10.03.1894 in Emmendingen)
Gundelfinger, Alfred (* 00.00.1886)
Heidenheimer, Selma (* 25.04.1879 in Stuttgart)
Heilborn, Gertrud Gertrude (* 15.07.1898 in Ravensburg)
Heilbrunn, Irma (* 18.03.1871 in Heilbronn)
Hofeler, Leo (* 17.02.1897 in Eichstetten)
Katz, Flora (* 04.06.1887 in Buttenhausen)
Kaufmann, Rosa Rahel (* 15.01.1899 in Minsk)
Klaus, Ernst (* 12.08.1903 in Wertheim)
Knopf, Betty Sara (* 23.02.1887 in Pforzheim)
Kohn, Karl (* 17.09.1896 in Stuttgart)
Landauer, Heinrich (* 15.11.1904)
Lindauer, Albert (* 06.05.1888 in Menzingen)
Löwengart, Julius (* 22.06.1884 in Rexingen)
Mändle, Berta (* 22.02.1867 in Sontheim)
Maier, Samuel (* 06.01.1904 in Königsbach)
Marx, Jakob Jacob (* 24.01.1874 in Grünstadt)
Moos, Paul (* 10.09.1902 in Ulm)
Neu, Alfred (* 06.11.1895 in Weinheim)
Neumetzger, David (* 01.01.1896 in Oberdorf)
Öttinger, Ludwig (* 08.02.1888 in Riedlingen)
Oppenheimer, Alfred (* 11.12.1871 in Würzburg)
Ottenheimer, Florina (* 20.06.1876 in Randegg)
Pauker, Anna (* 13.01.1889 in Bobruisk)
Reis, Paul (* 01.12.1904)
Rothschild, Lisa Elisabeth (* 14.02.1903 in Pforzheim)
Rotschild, Rosa (* 06.12.1884 in Korgeh)
Seelenberger, Anna Maria (* 21.02.1886 in Grünstadt)
Selz, Sigmund (* 20.02.1888 in Affaltrach)
Stein, Sara (* 10.09.1869 in Brünnau)
Steiner, Charlotte (* 21.05.1897 in Ulm)
Stern, Hedwig (* 04.07.1869 in Kochendorf)
Strauss, Alfred (* 10.09.1910 in Hardheim)
Wassermann, Isaak Isak Friedrich (* 20.09.1888 in Aufhausen)
Weil, Rosalie (* 20.08.1871)
Weilmann, Toni Karola (* 05.03.1910 in Mannheim)
Wertheimer, Kurt (* 05.10.1900 in Freiburg)
Wollenberger, Paula (* 06.11.1888 in Heilbronn)
Würzburger, Max (* 30.12.1873 in Binau)


Three entries from the database:
Martha Goge died at Grafeneck on 13 November 1940.
Florina Ottenheimer died at Grafeneck on 13 August 1940.
Rosalie Weil died at Grafeneck on 9 July 1940.

2. Martha Goge is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaing to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Born 26 January 1895 in Lübeck / - / Freie Hansestadt Lübeck
Domiciled in Stuttgart
Date and place of death
13 November 1940, Grafeneck, killing institution

3. Given that Martha Goge is listed in the memorial book as having died at Grafeneck at a time when hospitalized mental patiens were transported to Grafeneck and killed there by gassing within the scope of Aktion T4, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Martha Goge was one of the persons gassed at Grafeneck within the scope of Aktion T4. It is thus proven that Martha Goge was killed by poison gas at Grafeneck.



6. Rebecka Schwan, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Hadamar on 4 February 1941

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.



The German Federal Archives database features the names of the following 95 German citizens who died at Hadamar:

Abraham, Adolf (* 28.03.1889 in Ehringshausen)
Abraham, Johanna (* 21.10.1883 in Ober-Olm)
Bachmann, Auguste (* 00.00.1856)
Bamberger, Laura (* 24.06.1878 in Marburg a. d. Lahn)
Baum, Berta (* 15.12.1886 in Woppenroth)
Baum, Bruno (* 06.11.1883 in Schornsheim)
Baum, Leo Leon (* 30.08.1893 in Wiesbaden)
Beck, Ruth (* 31.05.1926 in Mainz)
Behr, Helene (* 21.02.1899 in Flonheim)
Bleidt, Johann (* 26.11.1901)
Bodenheim, Emma (* 18.10.1882 in Worms)
Bösmann, Eleonore (* 17.07.1934 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Bösmann, Manfred (* 18.07.1934 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Bonem, Irma (* 22.12.1903 in Thalfang)
Brönner, Georg (* 07.03.1925 in Heimatshofen)
Cahn, Johanna (* 15.03.1912 in Oberzissen)
Cahn Kahn, Stefanie Stefani (* 29.08.1895 in Mainz)
Dessauer, Marianne (* 03.11.1911 in Solingen)
Donges, Ingeborg (* 14.05.1929 in Gießen)
Frank, Paul Hans (* 02.02.1925 in Dortmund)
Fröhlich, Gita (* 07.03.1905)
Gabbe, Willi Willy (* 14.05.1891 in Czersk)
Gans, Henny (* 19.11.1897 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Goldschmidt, Amalie Annelie (* 08.05.1865 in Königheim)
Gotthelf, Alfred (* 20.09.1933 in Großkrotzenburg)
Gotthelf, Amanda (* 29.12.1930 in Großkrotzenburg)
Gotthelf, Edeltrud (* 04.10.1932 in Großkrotzenburg)
Gotthelf, Klara (* 14.10.1937 in Großkrotzenburg)
Greiner, Emil Karl (* 19.02.1903)
Gutmann, Max (* 02.06.1899 in Redwitz a. d. Rodach)
Haase, Erika (* 05.01.1936 in Weimar)
Hanau, Johannette (* 15.01.1874 in Brotdorf)
Hanisch, Walter (* 06.01.1905 in Kiel)
Heinemann, Günther (* 29.05.1931 in Schöningen)
Heller, Paul (* 02.01.1908 in Offenbach)
Hirsch, Erna (* 25.01.1910 in Groß-Gerau)
Hirsch, Lina (* 24.02.1890 in Groß-Gerau)
Hirsch, Mathilde (* 20.12.1872 in Neckarbischofsheim)
Hopmann, Egon (* 03.08.1928 in Köln)
Jägermann, Wolf (* 30.12.1896 in Wiznitz (rum. Vinjita))
Jonas, Alfred (* 02.03.1903 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Kahn, Luitpold (* 09.04.1894 in Zweibrücken)
Kahn, Max (* 03.09.1891 in Hadamar)
Kallenberger, Paula (* 18.12.1906 in Mannheim)
Kamm, Isaak (* 19.08.1881 in Hettenhausen)
Konrad, Leo (* 21.12.1935 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Kramer, Alfred (* 22.12.1898 in Wanne-Eickel)
Küchler, Karl (* 24.01.1914)
Lauck, Konrad (* 14.06.1908)
Lehmann, Minna (* 21.09.1902 in Weiterstadt)
Lippmann, Adele Sara (* 06.10.1879 in Offenbach)
Lorsch, Ferdinand (* 14.09.1909 in Mainz)
Mansbacher, Otto (* 15.02.1895 in Darmstadt)
Marx, Henriette (* 16.02.1893 in Remagen)
Matzdorf, Alice (* 16.02.1895 in Berlin)
Mayer, Jenny (* 27.11.1885 in Odenbach)
Mendel, Isaak (* 17.02.1885 in Griesheim)
Nathan, Rosa (* 14.03.1890 in Mainz)
Nickel, Willi (* 09.11.1931 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Ohligschläger, Maria Mietje Margarete (* 22.04.1885 in Nijmwegen (dt. Nimwegen))
Oppenheimer, Ernst (* 20.08.1890 in Darmstadt)
Oppenheimer, Hugo (* 12.06.1891 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Peritz, Mirijam (* 28.06.1918 in Berlin)
Perlhöfter, Günter (* 06.09.1931 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Rabes, Thekla (* 18.04.1860 in Heuchelheim)
Reinach, Ernst (* 23.12.1901 in Homburg v. d. Höhe, Bad)
Reinach, Jenny (* 20.01.1855 in Hoffenheim)
Rupprecht, Alfred (* 14.01.1937 in Nürnberg)
Rupprecht, Hans (* 21.10.1935 in Nürnberg)
Ruprecht, Hermann (* 27.12.1927 in Nürnberg)
Sandmann, Margarete (* 14.02.1877 in Kassel)
Scherer, Mathilde (* 22.02.1868 in Sinsheim)
Schmidt, Berta (* 07.11.1884 in Krofdorf-Gleiberg)
Schönberg, Leopold (* 18.04.1877 in Welterod)
Schwan, Rebecka (* 05.10.1872 in Groß-Umstadt)
Schwarz, Mathilde (* 24.12.1888 in Krefeld)
Schwarzschild, Erika (* 23.06.1913 in Dertingen)
Schwemmer, Karlheinz (* 30.08.1933 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Sichel, Moritz (* 24.11.1887 in Heldenbergen)
Speck, Edith (* 09.12.1929 in Leipzig)
Spiegel, Karl Heinrich (* 00.00.1902)
Strauß, Horst Ludwig (* 16.10.1931 in Ems, Bad)
Strauß, Isaak (* 04.06.1868 in Langenschwalbach (Schwalbach, Bad))
Strauß, Willi (* 26.09.1929 in Ems, Bad)
Sußmann, David (* 30.06.1889 in Mainz)
Tannenbaum, Arnhold Arnold (* 04.02.1928 in Florstadt)
Traub, Alfred (* 20.07.1909 in Berwangen)
Wagner, Lieselotte (* 02.06.1926 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Wagner, Margaretha (* 22.11.1903)
Walter, Siegmund (* 25.03.1930 in Bamberg)
Widetzky, Hans-Peter (* 29.01.1934 in Berlin)
Wilhelm, Ernst Günter (* 28.11.1933 in Saarbrücken)
Wolf, Karoline (* 18.09.1892 in Mülheim a. d. Ruhr)
Wolff, Alfred (* 00.00.1882 in Altena)
Wurr, Hellmuth (* 07.10.1933 in Kassel)


A few of these entries refer to times before December 1940 or after August 1941 and must thus considered as referring to Hadamar patients who died a "normal" death (like Auguste Bachmann, who died at Hadamar in 1936) or to victims of the "wild euthanasia" that continued (albeit by methods other than gassing) after August 1941 (like Ruth Beck, who died at Hadamar on 23 June 1943. However, many if not most entries refer to the period in which killing was done by gassing at Hadamar, for instance the following:
Laura Bamberger died at Hadamar on 14 July 1941.
Isaak Kamm died at Hadamar on 4 February 1941.
Rebecka Schwan died at Hadamar on the same day.

2. Rebecka Schwan is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaing to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Maiden name: Lindheimer
Born on 5 October 1872 in Groß - Umstadt / Dieburg / Hessen
Domiciled in Goddelau
Date and place of death
4. February 1941, Hadamar, killing institution
Euthanasia

3. Given that Rebecka Schwan is listed in the memorial book as having died at Hadamar at a time when hospitalized mental patiens were transported to Hadamar and killed there by gassing within the scope of Aktion T4, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Rebecka Schwan was one of the persons gassed at Hadamar within the scope of Aktion T4. It is thus proven that Rebecka Schwan was killed by poison gas at Hadamar.


7. Antonie Greese, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Hartheim on 21 October 1940

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.


The German Federal Archives database features the names of the following 45 German citizens who died at Hartheim:

Bach, Peter Sebastian (* 15.05.1896 in Berlin)
Baer, Walter (* 16.01.1922 in Neunkirchen)
Beifus, Siegfried (* 25.04.1902 in Laasphe)
Cohn, Kurt Curt (* 17.08.1897 in Emden)
Czopek, Kurt (* 28.06.1907 in Leipzig)
Davids, Fritz (* 04.04.1924 in Geldern)
Engel, Detlef Frank (* 12.05.1927 in Berlin)
Friedmann, Manes Manasse (* 08.07.1887 in Stryszow)
Geller, Jakob Jacob (* 23.04.1872 in Wojnilow)
Görres, Felicitas (* 01.05.1880 in Bromberg (poln. Bydgoszcz))
Goldstein, David (* 06.12.1896 in Dabrowa)
Greese, Antonie (* 21.05.1887 in Biesenthal)
Grünseid recte Friedmann, Herz Hermann (* 13.07.1907 in Leipzig)
Gutmann, Moritz (* 24.12.1868 in Heidelberg)
Haas, Theodor Theo (* 14.01.1904 in Boppard)
Habermann, Jakob (* 21.07.1893 in Zahutyn)
Hamburger, Richard (* 10.01.1881 in Breslau)
Herz, Walter (* 15.04.1910 in Fürth)
Hirsch, Julius (* 18.03.1888 in Berlin)
Holländer, Abraham (* 18.11.1905 in Berlin)
Lehrer, Maier Leijba Mayer (* 27.12.1894 in Zaklikow)
Leubuscher, Dagobert Daniel (* 05.08.1894 in Berlin)
Lewinsohn, Karl Philipp Carl (* 23.10.1921 in Berlin)
Loebel, Josef Joseph (* 30.08.1896 in Wolkenstein)
Loewenstein, Jacob (* 08.02.1877 in Langendernbach)
Marx, Max (* 19.04.1899 in Rimbach)
Meyer, Louis Lewi Levi (* 01.01.1886 in Burgdorf)
Meyer, Samson (* 22.03.1890 in Hamburg)
Mosberg, Erich Kurt (* 13.04.1911 in Dresden)
Nowak, Szlama Samuel (* 15.07.1915 in Zdunska Wola)
Perlhefter, Samuel Sami (* 17.04.1873 in Frankfurt a. Main)
Pflanzer, Josef (* 22.08.1900 in Dessau)
Pik, Elias (* 03.10.1899 in Zdunska Wola)
Rachmann, Eduard (* 10.12.1905 in Berlin)
Schattner, Markus (* 16.03.1901 in Solotwina)
Schaumberg, Siegfried (* 16.11.1886 in Schweinsberg)
Segall, Schloma Salomom (* 05.05.1882 in Wladislawo)
Steinhardt, Max (* 02.08.1897 in Chemnitz)
Steinhardt, Sally Salli (* 13.01.1884 in Bonn)
Stern, Hildegard Hilda (* 02.09.1905 in Horb a. Neckar)
Stiebel, Hellmut Hellmuth (* 28.03.1923 in Beuthen O.S.)
Sylten, Werner (* 09.08.1893 in Hergiswil)
Szklar, Josef Abraham (* 18.01.1896 in Zuromin)
Weitz, Minna Mindel (* 20.05.1904 in Zolynia)
Wiechowski, Charlotte (* 05.02.1891 in Neuenburg)


Most of these people were taken to Hartheim from concentration camps after August 1941, which means that they were gassed there within the scope of Aktion 14f13. Examples:
Walter Baer died at Hartheim on 27 June 1942.
Kurt Czopek died at Hartheim on 13 Oktober 1942.
Eduard Rachmanndied at Hartheim on 14 October 1942.
However, there were also gassing victims within the scope of Aktion T4 among the above names. Examples:
Felicitas Görres died at Hartheim on 9 August 1940.
Antonie Greese died at Hartheim on 21 October 1940.
Charlotte Wiechowski died at Hartheim on 8 August 1940.

2. Antonie Greese is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaing to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Maiden name: Birkner
Born on 21 May 1887 in Biesenthal / Oberbarnim / Brandenburg
Domiciled in Eberswalde
Date and place of death:
21 October 1940, Hartheim, killing institution
Euthanasia

3. Given that Antonie Greese is listed in the memorial book as having died at Hartheim at a time when hospitalized mental patien[t]s were transported to Hartheim and killed there by gassing within the scope of Aktion T4, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Antonie Greese was one of the persons gassed at Hartheim within the scope of Aktion T4. It is thus proven that Antonie Greese was killed by poison gas at Hartheim.


8. Johanna Hedwig Schiller, gassed at the "euthanasia" killing center Sonnenstein on 4 February 1941

1. For proof that the "euthanasia" centers Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein were killing sites where people (mostly hospitalized mental patients, but also sick or invalid concentration camp inmates) were killed in gas chambers by bottled carbon monoxide gas within the scope of Aktion T4 or Aktion 14f13, see Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (hereinafter “Friedlander, Euthanasia”), pp. 86 to 111 and 136 to 151. Many of these pages can be read online. The period of killing operations at these institutions were the following:
Bernburg: September 1940 to 1943
Brandenburg: Winter 1939-40 to September 1940
Grafeneck: January to December 1940
Hadamar: December 1940 to August 1941
Hartheim: May 1940 to December 1944
Sonnenstein: June 1940 to 1943
On pp. 148/149, Friedlander writes the following about the periods in which people were gassed at each of these places:

Before August 1941, the victims of Operation 14f13 were gassed in the facilities otherwise occupied with the killing of the handicapped, specifically at Hartheim and Sonnenstein. After late August 1941, when Hitler ordered a stop to the murder of the handicapped by gas, only concentration camp prisoners were gassed in T4 killing centers. Four centers were still operational: Bernburg, Hadamar, Hartheim and Sonnenstein. But Hadamar was never used for this purpose, and its gassing facilities were demolished in the summer of 1942. Bernburg and Sonnenstein, however, remained functional until 1943 for the killings of 14f13, while Hartheim continued to gas concentration camp prisoners until the end of 1944.


The German Federal Archives database features the names of the following 27 German citizens who died at Sonnenstein:

Becher, Gustav (* 16.09.1882 in Steinheim)
Böhm, Ida (* 22.03.1874 in Bernburg)
Breslauer, Erna (* 14.05.1889 in Leipzig)
Feit, Hugo Hillel (* 27.09.1898 in Lezajsk)
Flatow, Kurt (* 10.01.1898 in Marienburg)
Fraenkel, Siegbert Martin (* 25.11.1883 in Berlin)
Frank, Samuel (* 31.01.1872 in Bibra)
Goldmann, Wilhelm (* 12.10.1891 in Loslau (poln. Wodzislaw Slaski))
Israel, Salomon (* 22.07.1879 in Groß-Gerau)
Itzkewitsch, Faibusch (* 15.08.1891 in Lipsko)
Julius, Leopold (* 02.06.1884 in Fürstenberg)
Kaiser, Martin (* 17.03.1885 in Städtel)
Klein, Bertha Marie (* 05.05.1863 in Oberdorf)
Kochenstrom, Alex (* 17.02.1914 in Zürich)
Königsberger, Kurt (* 01.09.1891 in Fürth)
Lichtmann, Saul Paul (* 27.11.1889 in Bohlschau (poln. Bolszowe))
Lindner, Regina Rebekka (* 15.11.1900 in Inowlodz)
Löwenberg, Bernhard (* 05.06.1875 in Mertinsdorf)
Lorberbaum, Nathan Naftali (* 08.02.1890 in Dynow)
Mokran, Josef (* 10.06.1903 in Leipzig)
Mosse, Meier Felix (* 12.05.1877 in Berlin)
Rabinowicz, Majer (* 24.07.1898 in Czestochowa (dt. Tschenstochau))
Rosenbaum, Moses Mosis (* 06.09.1904 in Bochnia (dt. Salzberg))
Schiller, Johanna Hedwig (* 25.04.1886 in Leipzig)
Schwarzwald, Salomon (* 05.05.1883 in Lubisza)
Steinberg, Otto (* 11.07.1889 in Milano (dt. Mailand))
Steinberg, Paula (* 01.01.1900 in Milano (dt. Mailand))


The dates of death, where available, show these people to have been gassed within the scope of Aktion T4. Examples:
Hugo Hillel Feit died at Sonnenstein on 23 July 1941.
Leopold Julius died at Sonnenstein on 25 July 1941
Johanna Hedwig Schiller died at Sonnenstein on 4 February 1941.

2. Johanna Hedwig Schiller is recorded in the German Federal Archives database pertaing to the memorial book for victims of the persecution of the Jews under National Socialist rule between 1939 and 1945 (Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945), with the following data:

Born on 25 April 1886 in Leipzig / - / Saxonia
Domiciled in Leipzig
Date and place of death:
4 February 1941, Sonnenstein near Pirna, killing institution
Euthanasia

3. Given that Johanna Hedwig Schiller is listed in the memorial book as having died at Sonnenstein at a time when hospitalized mental patiens were transported to Sonnenstein and killed there by gassing within the scope of Aktion T4, as proven by the evidence researched by Henry Friedlander, there is no room for reasonable doubt that Johanna Hedwig Schiller was one of the persons gassed at Sonnenstein within the scope of Aktion T4. It is thus proven that Johanna Hedwig Schiller was killed by poison gas at Sonnenstein.


9. Ichay Litchi, gassed at Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp on 17 or 19 August 1943

Ichay Litchi was one of 86 Jewish inmates of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp transported from there to the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in Alsace and killed there by poison gas so that his body could be used for a skeleton collection that SS - Hauptsturmführer Prof. Dr. August Hirt, then director of the University of Strasbourg’s anatomical institute, intended to prepare with the authorization and backing of Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler. The documentary and eyewitness evidence proving the planning and execution of this crime is rendered in, among other sources, the THHP article August Hirt: Deadly Collector of the Victims of the Holocaust, by Anne S. Reamey, the Scrapbookpages page about the Natzweiler-Struthof gas chamber and the article Skelette für Straßburg by Hans-Joachim Lang, published on 19.08.2004 in the online edition of the German weekly Die Zeit. Dr. Hans-Joachim Lang is a professor at Tübingen University in Germany who, on the basis of the numbers tattooed on the arms of the 86 victims at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp (which could be matched with the Auschwitz inmate records), managed to establish the names of all 86 Jews killed at Natzweiler. Dr. Lang has published a book with the title Die Namen der Nummern (The Names of the Numbers), which narrates his research leading to the identification of the 86 gassing victims. This book is advertised on Dr. Lang’s website, which on the page 86 Kurzbiographien features the names of all 86 victims:

1. David Akouni
2. Bella Alaluf
3. Israel Albert
4. Elvira Amar
5. Emma Amar
6. Palomba Arnades
7. Aron Aron
8. Nety Aruch
9. Martin Ascher
10. Esra Asser
11. Allegra Attas
12. Ernestine Baruch
13. Joachim Basch
14. Joachim Behrendt
15. Günther Benjamin
16. Allegre Beracha
17. K. Bezsmiertny
18. Samuel Bluosilio
19. Harri Bober
20. Sara Bomberg
21. Sophie Boroschek
22. Nisin Buchar
23. Rebeca Cambeli
24. Sarica Cambeli
25. Elei Cohen
26. Juli Cohen
27. Hugo Cohn
28. Günter Dannenberg
29. Sabi Dekalo
30. Kurt Driesen
31. Aron Esformes
32. Aron Eskaloni
33. Ester Eskenazi
34. Maurice Francès
35. Abraham Franco
36. Heinz Salo Frischler
37. Benjamin Geger
38. Fajsch Gichman
39. Brandel Grub
40. Hugo Haarzopf
41. Charles Hassan
42. Alfred Hayum
43. Rudolf Herrmann
44. Jacob Herschfeld
45. Albert Isaac
46. Israel Isak
47. Sabetaij Kapon
48. Maria Kempner
49. Levei Khan
50. Elisabeth Klein
51. Jean Kotz
52. Paul Krotoschiner
53. Else Leibholz
54. Kurt Levy
55. Ichay Litchi
56. Michael Marcus
57. Maria Matalon
58. A. Matarasso
59. Lasas Menache
60. Katerina Mosche
61. Regina Nachman
62. Siniora Nachmias
63. Dario Nathan
64. Sarina Nissim
65. Hch. Osepowitz
66. Jeanette Passmann
67. Hermann Pinkus
68. Jacob Polak
69. Israel Rafael
70. Samuel Rafael
71. Siegbert Rosenthal
72. Frank Sachnowitz
73. Marie Sainderichin
74. Albert Saltiel
75. Maurice Saltiel
76. Maurice Saporta
77. Mordochai Saul
78. Gustav Seelig
79. Alice Simon
80. Emil Sondheim
81. Sigurd Steinberg
82. Nina Sustil
83. Menachem Taffel
84. Martha Testa
85. Maria Urstein
86. Walter Wollinski

For each name the page contains a brief rendering of the victim’s biographical data as so far established by Dr. Lang’s research.

What follows is my translation of Dr. Lang’s aforementioned article in Die Zeit.

Skeletons for Strasbourg
One of the grisliest science crimes of the »Third Reich« has finally been cleared up
By: Hans-Joachim Lang
• 19.8.2004 - 14:00 Hours

No photo, no letter of his parents was left to Henri Litchi. The 68-year-old Paris apothecary owns only a few documents about them. One of the originals among these documents is the wedding certificate. According to this document, Esther Scialom and Ichay Litchi married on 12 September 1929 in Thessaloniki. Soon thereafter they emigrated to France. When exactly and why, whether directly to Paris or first via a detour: Henri Litchi doesn’t know the answers.

One of his own earliest recollections is a train trip in the winter of 1942, which brought him and his elder sister Arlette to a French village in the Pyrenees. Who brought the two to the station in Paris? Another unanswered question. His mother it was not, in any case, for as evidenced by the death certificate she died on 24 February 1941 at 23:50 hours in a Paris clinic. In the mountain village Henri and Arlette were awaited by a foster mother, who guided both children safely through the war. »I have good memories of her«, Henri Litchi recalls gratefully. »She had a voice similar to my mother’s.«

A far-away voice is all that remained to him from his mother.

After the war he learns that his father is also dead. Died in the NS-internment camp Drancy. But that is not correct. If Henri Litchi had had even had the slightest hunch, he would certainly have looked up Serge Klarsfeld’s book Le Mémorial de la Déportation des Juifs de France (1983). This book lists all transports of French Jews to the German extermination camps and mentions 33,000 deportees, name after name. Including Ichay Litchi, who on 9 February 1943 was deported together with 1,000 French Jews in transport Nº 47 to Auschwitz, arrived there on 11 February 1943 and was sent into the camp together with 76 men and 91 women, while the others were immediately murdered by the SS. But even this is only half the truth. For the whole truth includes the fact that in Auschwitz Litchi fell into the hands of two anthropologists and was deported on 30 July 1943 together with another 85 selected inmates to the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in Alsace.

The two ambitious young scientists had come to Auschwitz in early June 1943: 32-year-old Bruno Beger from Munich, where he had evaluated a Tibet expedition at an institute, and from Tübingen 31-year-old Hans Fleischhacker, who on the day before his departure has concluded his state doctorate with the test lecture. 30 years later the two scientists will tell the Frankfurt Court of Assizes that in Auschwitz they measured inmates in order to coordinate various techniques for a joint racial science expedition to the Caucasus.

Actually, however, Beger and Fleischhacker were acting on behalf of the SS-Wissenschaftsorganisation Ahnenerbe, which by all means at its disposal supported a plan of anatomy professor August Hirt. Hirt, born in 1898, had in 1936 been called to Greifswald University (which the Nazis had named after one of their early mentors on racial issues, Ernst Moritz Arndt), and after an interval in Frankfurt am Main was working since 1941 at the so-called Reich University Strasbourg. Here he was head of anatomy, accepted to cooperate with Ahnenerbe and intended to expand the institute’s historical skull collection into a panoply of racial propaganda. For this purpose he had at first manifested the intention of making a selection among Russian prisoners of war: »The Jewish-Bolshevik commissars, who constitute an obnoxious but characteristic sub-humanity, give us the possibility of obtaining a palpable scientific document by securing their skulls.« An unspecified number of these prisoners were to be anthropologically measured and then murdered. »For keeping and researching the skull material thus obtained«, in Hirt’s opinion, »the new Reich University Strasbourg would according to its purpose and its task be the most proper place.«

The Allies approach – the murderers panic

In the cooperation with Ahnenerbe, however, the intended »Jewish skull collection« soon became a »Jewish skeleton collection«. Why the SS-medics eventually preferred concentration camp inmates to Russian prisoners of war as victims does not become apparent from the few surviving files. The incomplete correspondence among the members of Ahnenerbe involved in the crime shows that 150 inmates were to be measured at Auschwitz. It was intended to murder them at Auschwitz and bring the conserved corpses to Strasbourg. It is not quite clear according to what criteria and on what occasion Beger and Fleischhacker chose the victims to fulfill their task. »I recall«, Berger later testified in court, »that when for the first time in my life I was confronted with a larger group of Jews in Auschwitz concentration camp, I was surprised by the anthropological diversity.«

The two scientists »helped themselves«. They selected, classified and would probably have »processed« 150 women and men, as they called it internally. However, due to a typhus epidemic they had to end their assignment prematurely. The already collected women and men were provisionally placed in quarantine and finally brought by rail to Natzweiler in Alsace, where the task was to be completed in cold blood. The selected women and men, as reported by an eyewitness after the war, said goodbye, »full of joy« because they believed the lie that they would go to a better camp. That was on 30 July 1943. »We never heard of them again.«

They were 29 women and 57 men. After a trip of three days they arrived at the camp, which was located about 60 kilometers southwest of Strasbourg in the Vosges mountains. There x-ray images of their skulls were made and their blood group was determined. On 11, 13, 17 and 19 August the camp commandant poisoned the 86 persons in a gas cell outside the camp. The room, 2.40 meters wide, 3.50 meters deep and 2.60 meters high, originally the Hotel Struthof’s cooling room, had at first been converted exclusively for experiments with poison gas carried out on inmates by professors of medicine.

SS-men brought the corpses on trucks to the University Anatomical Institute in Strasbourg. »At this moment«, anatomy assistant Henry Henrypierre recalled in 1946 as a witness at the Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial, »I thought for myself that these must be victims who in my opinion had been poisoned or choked«, for »none of the victims from previous conservations showed such traces […]. Therefore I noted the prisoner numbers from the left arm on a piece of paper and secretly kept them with me.«

The conserved corpses were placed in vats in the anatomy cellar. But the further examination and processing of the corpses didn’t make any progress. The war situation worsened for the Wehrmacht, material was lacking, other tasks had priority. When the Allies approached from the west, it was decided in Berlin in August 1944 to transfer to Tübingen those sections of the Reich University Strasbourg considered of importance for the war effort. Thus the question arose for Hirt and his accomplices what was to be done with the incriminating corpses. One could » take off their flesh and thus make them unrecognizable, but then the whole work would have been in vain«, the Ahnenerbe manager Wolfram Sievers wrote by teletype to his superior, SS-leader Heinrich Himmler, who was familiar with all details.

In panic like most murderers, Hirt's helpers in mid-September or at the end of September 1944 started making the corpses unrecognizable. 70 heads and presumably 55 torsos they transported to the city crematorium, 16 intact corpses they placed next to each other in three vats – »like sardines«, as Henry Henrypierre later described the grisly action – the rest they mixed with remains of corpses that had been used in anatomy lessons.

On 23 November 1944 Strasbourg was liberated from the hands of the Wehrmacht. Three weeks later French military justice started investigating. In painstaking investigations they managed to establish the site and the approximate circumstances of the crime, but the transport of the Auschwitz inmates to Alsace was only revealed by the interrogation of camp commandant Josef Kramer in April 1945. An autopsy of the corpses and corpse parts, which had remained in the anatomy cellar, was carried out in July 1945 in preparation for the Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial. During the autopsy French forensic medics found on 13 corpses and three corpse parts the tattoos from Auschwitz and recorded the numbers. However, these numbers were never used for identifying the corpses.

August Hirt, whose participation in the crime was soon clear to the investigators, was sentenced to death in his absence by the Metz military tribunal on 23 December 1953. At that time, however, the anatomist, who had been in Tübingen after November 1944 and hidden in the Black Forest in mid-April [1945], was already dead. Hirt had on 2 June 1945 killed himself in the Schluchsee area with a shot in the head. Wolfram Sievers was sentenced to death at the Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial and executed on 2. June 1948 in Landsberg on the Lech.

Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker stood trial only in 1970, accused of accessoriness to murder. The Frankfurt Court of Assizes acquitted Fleischhacker; he could continue his scientific work at the local university. Beger the judges sentenced to the minimum penalty of three years for accessoriness to 86 murders. His internment after the war and his imprisonment on remand were deducted from the sentence, and the remainder was remitted for good »conduct of life«.

The only witness’s secret note

While French military justice asked for the origin of the 86 corpses in the Stasbourg anatomy’s cellar, nothing is known about an investigation of their identity. Independently of whether there was ever an interest in these matters such questions paled with time, for much that is worth knowing from judicial inquiries remains sealed by the anachronistic French archive law. Among the inaccessible documents there is probably the only surviving guide to the victims’ names: the secret notes taken by Henry Henrypierre, the Anatomical Institute’s employee.

In 1998 I began my search. A great help was the Holocaust Museum in Washington, opened a few years before. Their archive had just received microfilms from the Strasbourg Departement Archive, which included a typescript of Henrypierre’s key document. On hand of this paper and further sources from the archives at Auschwitz and at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem the concentration camp numbers could again be translated into names. Herewith the victims were not yet identified, however.

Polish historian Danuta Czech, in her voluminous 1989 Calendar of events in Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp, established on hand of archive documents on what days deportation trains arrived from what places, how many persons thereof the SS immediately murdered by gas and what concentration camp numbers were issued to those men and women who were sent into the camp. Thus, for instance, the number 79238 on Henrypierre’s note could be attributed to a man among the 532 Jews transported from Norway via Stettin to Auschwitz, arrival on 1 December 1942. Another inmate with the number 101089 was male and had arrived on 11 February 1943 among 1,000 Jews: a transport from the camp Drancy near Paris. The number 107801 indicated a man from Berlin, who had arrived on 13 March 1943, and the number 38790 a woman who had been deported on 30 March 1943 from Thessaloniki to Auschwitz. On hand of the mentioned other documents it could now be established that the name of the man deported from Norway was Frank Sachnowitz, the one from Drancy was named Ichay Litchi, the one from Berlin Menachem Taffel, born on 21. July 1900 in Sedriczow, and the women from Thessaloniki Bella Alaluf, born in 1923.

It was thus gradually established that the 86 men and women murdered at Natzweiler had arrived at Auschwitz from eight countries between 1 December 1942 and 19 May 1943. 19 women and 26 men had been deported from Greece, 23 men and 3 women from Germany, 6 women from Belgium, 4 men from Poland, 2 men from the Netherlands, 2 men from France, one from Norway. Those deported from Berlin and Thessaloniki to Auschwitz had embarked on the trip to certain death from their last domicile. Of the Berliners a considerable part had not been living in the Reich capital for long – some, like Heinz Frischler or the plaster maker Else Leibholz, had once fled there from the east in fear of pogroms or out of concern about an uncertain future.

The electrician Paul Krotoschiner and the businessman Gustav Seelig, working as a forced laborer at Siemens-Schuckert, had been arrested by the Gestapo during the so-called factory action. Other deportees like Jeannette Passmann from Gelsenkirchen, the Düsseldorf tailor Brandel Grub und Elisabeth Klein from Vienna, the daughter of a pipe trader, had under great hardship emigrated to Belgium and fallen into the Nazis’ hands after the Wehrmacht’s invasion. Still others had first been expelled from their villages and crammed into an urban ghetto, like Kalman Bezsmiertny into the Białystok ghetto, before they were deported to the extermination camp from there.

The perpetrators shall not have the final word

In order to fathom this topology of terror, give it a shape and find the victims, it was necessary to conduct a complex research, which again and again reached its limits. For I had not considered that the fates of the 86 searched persons would confront me right away with the whole European dimension of the Holocaust.

Just as I had managed to convert the numbers into names I came upon the work of a French historian. Tracing an Unknown Person is the title of the book, published in 1999, in which Alain Corbin demonstrates how he gives shape to a person picked at random from a finding book – a French maker of wooden shoes from the 19th Century – on hand of administrative files and other available documents. Corbin spurred me to continue searching. However, while he could focus on the search for one single person, I had undertaken a multiple of that. But also in our objectives we differed. Corbin writes that he is not linked to his historical research by any faith, any mission, any engagement. I, on the other hand, was a party – not as concerns the objective reconstruction of the crime’s circumstances, but in the sense of giving a fact to the anonymous victims of a crime. Also for the sake of their relatives, who, as was confirmed to me again and again, wanted to have certainty, however horrible it might be.

The most important thing, however, is that the perpetrators should not have the last work. Their names are in the file of history’s criminals, whoever wants to can find them there. But one should remember and keep in mind those who were murdered for scientific purposes, deprived of their name, their identity. Jeannette Passmann, née Vogelsang, the businessman’s widow from Gelsenkirchen, and Frank Sachnowitz, the 17-year-old Norwegian from Larvik. And Ichay Litchi, born on 13 Juy 1911 in Thessaloniki, since the early 1930s a popular shoemaker in Paris, Rue Abbé Groult No. 65; father of four children, a daughter and three sone, one by the name of Henri.


It is thus proven that ICHAY LITCHI was killed by poison gas at Natzweiler.


The biographical data of Ichay Litchi on Dr. Lang’s website are the following (my translation):

Born on 13 July 1911 in Thessaloniki (Greece). After marrying Esthere née Scialom (on 12 September 1929 in Thessaloniki) the couple emigrated to France in the early 1930s. Four children: Albert (born 1931), Charles (born 1932), Arlette (born 1934) and Henri (born am 10 August 1936). Litchi runs a cobbler’s shop in Paris. His wife dies on 24 February 1941 in a Paris hospital, at the age of 30. The children are hidden in the Pyrenees in time. Ichay Litchi is deported on 9 February 1943 from Drancy to Auschwitz. On 11 February 1943 this 46th transport delivers 1,000 Jewish men, women and children there. After the selection 77 men and 91 women are sent as inmates into the camp, the other 832 persons immediately murdered in the gas chamber. Litchi is operated on 17 March 1943 in Auschwitz Block 21, the inmate hospital. On 30 July 1943 he is deported to the concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof. There he is murdered in the gas chamber on 17 or 19 August 1943.

6 comments:

Zingmit said...

http://twitpic.com/5z5gg5

tommaso said...

Data
Fonte della informazione
Numero morti
1945-12-31 Franz. Ermittlungsst. für Kriegsverbrechen 8.000,000
1978-04-20 Le Monde (Newspaper, Paris) 5.000,000
1995-01-32 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 5.000,000
1989-04-20 Kogon. Der SS-Staat (Expert-Book) 4.500,000
1946-10-01 IMT Dokument 008 USSR 4.000,000
1989-11-24 OSIA Majorowsky. Wuppertal 4.000,000
1990-07-26 Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung (Jewish Newspaper Ger.) 4.000,000
1993-10-08 ZDF (German TV station - Public service) 4.000,000
1995-01-25 Wetzlarer Neue Zeitung (Newspaper, Germany) 4.000,000
1946-10-01 IMT Dokument 3868-PS 3.000,000
1995-01-01 Damals (Geschichtsmagazin Germany ) 3.000,000
1990-07-18 The Peninsulat Times Tribune. SF (USA) 2.000,000
1990-07-25 Hamburger Abendblatt (Newspaper, Germany) 2.000,000
1995-01-27 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 2.000,000
1992-06-11 Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung (Jewish Newspaper Ger.) 1.500,000
1993-10-08 ZDF (German TV station - Public service) 1.500,000
1995-01-23 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 1.500,000
1989-09-01 Le Monde (Newspaper, Paris France) 1.433,000
1995-02-02 Bunte (family magazine - Germany ) 1.400,000
1995-01-22 Die Welt (Welt am Sonntag - Newspaper, Ger.) 1.200,000
1995-01-27 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 1.100,000
1994-12-21 IfZ (Institut für Zeitgeschichte. München) 1.000,000
1989-12-31 Pressac-Buch. Auschwitz: Technique 0.928,000
1993-09-27 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 0.800,000
1995-01-22 Die Welt Die Welt (Welt am Sonntag - Newspaper, Ger.) 0.750,000
1994-05-01 Focus 0.700,000
1995-01-23 Die Welt (Newspaper, Germany) 0.700,000
1994-12-31 Pressac. Die Krematorien von Auschwitz 0.470,000
1948-01-08 Welt im Film (Wochenschau Nr. 137 German TV) 0.300,000
1990-01-06 Frankfurter Rundschau (Newspaper, Germany) 0.074,000
1995-05-31 Hoffmann - Stalins Vernichtungskrieg 1941-45 0.074,000

tommaso said...

Revisionismo La ricerca storica sulla II G. M. non piace ai sionisti

Olocausto: sminuire è delittuoso, esagerare no

di Rutilio Sermonti (foto)


Procede con gran rullo di tamburi la campagna sionista per ottenere anche in Italia una legge che penalmente vieti la ricerca storica non gradita alla sinagoga, e i vertici ebraici sono persuasi che, essendo ad essi tutto lecito, finiranno per spuntarla.

Ma ecco che sorge una difficoltà - diremo così - in re ipsa.

Gli è che l'attività delittuosa che si vuol perseguire non è tanto la negazione totale, quanto la cosiddetta "sminuizione". Che tanta gente sia deceduta durante la detenzione in campi di concentramento o di lavoro (particolarmente feroce quella "alleata") è purtroppo universalmente noto, e tra essi una forte percentuale di ebrei.

Quasi tutta la letteratura revisionista potrebbe quindi definirsi di sminuizione, e quindi tendente a ridimensionare in meno la storia dell'olocausto nei termini sparati dai Russi nel 1945.

Ora, se non ci falla la conoscenza della lingua italiana, "sminuire" significa indicare dati dimensionali inferiori a quelli reali. Si può anche "esagerare", ossia indicare dati superiori, ma questo, per l'olocausto è permesso: solo sminuire è delittuoso.

Occorre comunque disporre di un dato fermo, almeno presunta-mente vero, con cui confrontare le valutazioni, per concludere quali siano "sminuitive": non si scappa.

E qui casca l'asino, perchè tale dato non esiste.

Dopo le fantasmagoriche affermazioni del 1945-46 (che nessuno storico "sterminazionista" conferma), i calcoli numerici degli ebrei deceduti, anche da fonti ebraiche non sospette, saltellano tra cifre disparatissime.

Addirittura l'Allgemeine Judische Wochenzeitung, dai 4 milioni esposti nel 1990, nel 1992 scende a 1.500.000, e persino l'autorevolissimo Pressac è a 928.000. L'istituto specializzato IKRK di Arolsen, fonte insospettabile, precisa la cifra in esattamente in 271.304. Sminuivano, costoro? Anche le fonti ebraiche?

Eppure, erano considerati leciti, persino il Frankfurther Rundschau del 1990 coi suoi 74.000 in tutto non subì alcuna sanzione. Omettiamo di elencare le diversissime altre valutazioni numeriche, in cui ci siamo imbattuti, e ci limitiamo a costatare che il necessario dato di riferimento per il giudice penale olocaustico è lontanissimo da esistere. Siamo proprio curiosi di sapere come la metteranno.

tommaso said...

C’è veramente da chiedersi: ma quale enorme potere, a livello mondiale,è in grado da poter ottenere nelle singole Nazioni, rette da ordinamenti democratici e tradizioni libertarie,il varo di leggi che proibiscono studi, ricerche e pubblicazioni di carattere storico?
Per uno Stato democratico potrei capire una legge che vieti l’esternazione di principi di sopraffazione razziale, ma una legge che vieta di esprimere un parere se un fatto storico è effettivamente accaduto o meno e semmai in che termini esatti si sia accaduto,mi sembra veramente inaudito”.

Roberto Muehlenkamp said...

Wow, this blog obviously caused some Italian apostle of the "Revisionist" faith to freak out and post a lot of spam (including the worn-out old herring about the shrinking death toll of Auschwitz-Birkenau, duh!) in the comments section.

Now listen, Mr. tommaso: if you want your rubbish to get a reply, post it in English. Otherwise, piss off.

Ah, and outside your moronic little world the death toll of Auschwitz-Birkenau stands where Rudolf Höss put it back in 1946, i.e. at ca. 1 million. Better get used to the idea.

phoenixcorlett said...

To whoever posted this,
Thank you so much. Sally steinhardt was my great grandfather and I have been looking for his final resting place , which I suspected was hartheim. Your link to the archives proved it. Me and my family are grateful.